加工食品和炎症的關係

2017-02

今天的加工食品如快餐,已經成爲主流文化的一部分。雖然它們便宜方便,但營養數據卻顯示它們並不健康。快餐中的熱量、飽和脂肪酸、反式脂肪,精煉糖和鈉(8) 都一般比較高。這樣的飲食習慣會增加患上肥胖,代謝綜合症和心血管疾病的風險(5)。炎症是身體發生癒合並防止病毒和細菌的重要過程(4),急性或慢性炎症可導致免疫系統衰弱,令身體更易受到感染。

 

研究顯示,精煉糖可以增加細胞激素的釋放,激發系統性的發炎反應(1,6)。本應參與免疫作用的白血球細胞因精煉糖的攝取而減少(6),而高升糖負荷的加工食物亦會增強炎症(2)。除精煉糖外,鈉質也會通過釋放促炎細胞因子,導致炎症的發生(5)。其他研究結果亦提及到飽和脂肪會促進脂肪組織炎症(1),特別在女性人口中,反式脂肪更是引起全身或慢性炎症的因素(6)。

 

不瘦降之謎 (Supersize Me) 這一套受歡迎的紀錄片,記錄了一個人連續三十日三餐均進食麥當勞後身體的改變(3)。紀錄片揭示了快餐可以對我們身體做出甚麼改變,如增重、使人持續抑鬱、流失能量和引致心臟不規則等等。

 

偶爾享受加工食品是可以接受的,但我們必須了解此類食物對身體造成甚麼損害和負面影響。

 

 

資料來源:

  1. “8 Food Ingredients That Can Cause Inflammation.” Fo od Ingredients and Inflammation. Arthritis Foundation, n.d. Web. 25 July 2016. <http://www.arthritis.org/living-with-arthritis/arthritis-diet/foods-to-avoid-limit/food-ingredients-and-inflammation-2.php>.
  2. “Diet and Inflammation.” That Sugar Film. That Sugar…, n.d. Web. 26 July 2016. <http://thatsugarfilm.com/blog/2016/03/27/diet-and-inflammation/>.
  3. “Super Size Me.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 25 July 2016. <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Super_Size_Me>.
  4. “What You Eat Can Fuel or Cool Inflammation, a Key Driver of Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Other Chronic Conditions – Harvard Health.” Harvard Health. Harvard Medical School, Sept. 2005. Web. 26 July 2016. <http://www.health.harvard.edu/family-health-guide/what-you-eat-can-fuel-or-cool-inflammation-a-key-driver-of-heart-disease-diabetes-and-other-chronic-conditions>.
  5. Manzel, Arndt, Dominik N. Muller, David Hafler, Susan Erdman, Ralf A. Linker, and Markus Kleinewietfeld. “Role of “Western Diet” in Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases.” PubMed Central. US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, 1 Jan. 2015. Web. 25 July 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034518/>.
  6. Mozaffarian, Dariush, Tobias Pischon, Susan E. Hankinson, Nader Rifai, Kaumudi Joshipura, Walter C. Willett, and Eric B. Rimm. “Dietary Intake of trans Fatty Acids and Systemic Inflammation in Women.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr. 2004. Web. 25 July 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1282449/>.
  7. Myles, Ian A. “Fast Food Fever: Reviewing the Impacts of the Western Diet on Immunity.”Nutrition Journal. BioMed Central, 17 June 2014. Web. 25 July 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074336/>.
  8. Smith, Melinda, Lawrence Robinson, and Jeanne Segal. “Healthy Fast Food.”Helpguide.org. N.p., Apr. 2016. Web. 22 July 2016. <http://www.helpguide.org/articles/healthy-eating/healthy-fast-food.htm>.